November 2021

All About The Guitar Neck

The guitar neck is long and has a lot of notes – more than most instruments.  On a standard 22-fret Fender Stratocaster, you have 132 notes to choose from – but not 132 different notes. Oh no, this is the guitar, the instrument where the notes climb in pitch going up the neck, and also across the neck while climbing the strings.  You can actually play the same exact note in more than one location.  Why, high E alone (the open 1st string) can be found in 5 different locations on that same Strat. Confused yet?

Fortunately, while the guitar neck may seem indecipherable at first, it’s actually quite easy to learn, and well worth the effort to learn it. By being completely familiar with your musical surroundings, you will be far more articulate, inventive, and intelligent in your guitar playing.  Knowing the names of the notes in the chromatic scale, it is possible to determine what every note on the guitar neck is. Keep reading for a full explanation of how to easily learn, find and memorize every note on the guitar neck.

The first thing to know is that the Western system of music divides the octave into twelve equal semitones, or half steps.  A whole step is two half steps.  These twelve tones are called the chromatic scale, and when we spell it out using only the natural notes of the musical alphabet, it looks like this:

Note that some notes have a half step in between them, and some notes have a whole step in between them.  You will want to memorize this:  the only half steps are between B and C, and E and F.  Every other note has a whole step between them. Memorizing this pattern will help greatly when it comes to finding notes and learning scales.

On the guitar neck, one half step is the distance of one fret and one whole step is the distance of two frets.  A note is sharp (#) if it is raised by one half step, and it is flat (b) if it is lowered one half step.  Many notes have the potential to be enharmonic, a single pitch that can be called by more than one name.  For example, G# is the same note as Ab, and B# is the same note as C.

On the guitar neck, these notes are arranged like so:

Take a look at the 5th string, and notice how it matches exactly with our chart of the chromatic scale up above.  A is the open string, then we go a whole step to play B on the 2nd fret, then a half step to play C on the 3rd fret, and so on until we reach A on the 12th fret – the octave of our open string.  From the 12th fret, the pattern repeats.

If you simply memorize the names of the open strings (from 6th to 1st: Elephants And Donkeys Grow Big Ears), you can find any note on any string by simply remembering that the only half steps are between B and C, and E and F.  Practice by starting with any open string, climbing the string with one finger and naming the natural notes (no sharps or flats) as you go. The first few times, use the chart above to check your work, but after that you should be good to go on your own. Do this for each string once a day, and after a while you’ll start to really memorize which note is which.

Of course, the best memorization happens when we actually apply what we know. So, as you play your normal riffs, licks, songs or what have you, take the time to name the notes that you’re playing as you go. If you do this regularly, before you know it you will recognize note names the instant you put your fingers down. This in turn will help you understand the harmonic and melodic relationships that exist between the notes, making you a more literate player and inevitably more fluent in your chosen genres.

To summarize:

  • 1 half step = 1 fret
  • 1 whole step = 2 frets
  • 2 half steps = 1 whole step
  • Chromatic scale: all 12 tones in the Western music system
  • Enharmonic: when one note can be called by two different names
  • The only half steps are between B and C, and E and F
  • Practice climbing each string and naming the notes
  • Name the notes you’re playing as you play songs, riffs, licks and chords

Practice daily, keep at it, and before you know it the mystery of the guitar neck will be swept away.




The importance of phrasing in improvisation – music is a language

Improvisation is the spontaneous creation of melodies in real time, without prior preparation of written music.  It involves a lot of imagination and creativity, and is not as hard to learn as you might think.  There are many tools that can help you improvise:

  • Scales – ordered sets of musical notes, such as the major scale or pentatonic scale.
  • Sequences – a repeated pattern of notes moving up and down the scale.
  • Melodic patterns – a repetitive pattern or figure that can be used with any scale, similar to sequences but more sophisticated.
  • Random notes – self-explanatory.
  • Double Stops – two notes played at the same time.
  • Triads – 3 note chords.
  • Arpeggios – chords played one note at a time.
  • And most importantly: Phrasing – the equivalent of creating sentences and paragraphs with music instead of words. This is the key to how good improvisers say something with their music.

Phrasing is the most important part of improvisation. With good phrasing, you will actually say something with your music, and people will understand what you’re saying. Music is a language, and like any language, its goal is to communicate. When you speak or write, you are communicating ideas by using words in a logical and articulate fashion. It’s no different in music. Notes are like words, and many notes can be strung together to form a lick (or motif), just like you’d string many words together to form a sentence. Then, just as you’d combine several sentences to form a paragraph that communicates an idea, licks can be strung together to create a phrase, a musical passage that has a complete musical sense of its own, and can be used to form large sections of related musical passages that convey musical ideas.

  • Notes = Words
  • Licks = Sentences
  • Phrases = Paragraphs

Just as you wouldn’t write a paragraph about one subject, and then randomly write the next paragraph about a different, unrelated subject, neither would you play one random phrase after another on the guitar. In an essay, you’d pick a subject, and then every word in that essay would be related, directly or indirectly, to that subject. So it is in improvisation. In improvisation, the “subject” is the song you’re improvising on. You decide what you want to say during this song, and then using notes, you create licks that relate to each other to form phrases, and then you create phrases that naturally follow from and relate to previous phrases. The best improvisers perform guitar solos that sound like a coherent collection of musical phrases – their solos almost sound “planned”. That’s because they have become fluent in the language of music, and they can improvise music the same way you might speak a language. You know your spoken language so well that you don’t even have to think about how to pronounce the words, or how to put them together to convey basic ideas. More complicated ideas might be harder to express, and require more studying and learning on your part. It’s exactly the same in music. You need to learn your scales, melodic patterns and arpeggios so well that you don’t have to think about how to play them, and you need to learn vocabulary so that you can put notes together to convey ideas. The more complicated the idea, the more vocabulary you need to know.

Just like you learned a spoken language by listening to and copying others, so too should you learn improvisation by listening to and copying others. Many guitarists start out concerned that if they learn what was played by others, they won’t develop their own musical voice and will end up sounding like someone else. But this is not necessarily true. Just as you have learned to speak with your own voice despite a lifetime of copying others, you will probably learn to play guitar with your own style as well. Your style will be a mixture of all the things you listen to and learn from, along with your own sense of taste and style. Many great innovators have brought something brand new to the table, but it is always rooted in the music of their past.

Learning the music of others is important in helping you develop your own vocabulary. Just as you wouldn’t speak by inventing your own words and your own language from nothing (which wouldn’t make sense to anyone but you), you don’t learn to play music by playing whatever you randomly want. At the same time, you probably don’t speak like a robot, and you don’t want to play music like a robot either. Learn the vocabulary of others and learn it well, and then add your own voice to it by changing it in ways that make sense to you. This way, you say musical things in a way that people are familiar with and understand, but said from your own perspective.

It’s a good idea to take into account the audience you intend to communicate with. Don’t play a jazz solo over a heavy metal song, or vice versa. Learning the vocabulary of a genre or a style is a little like learning different spoken dialects or accents. Fortunately, we guitarists have the advantage of being able to use the same notes (words) in all genres, we just have to use them in different ways to speak the dialect of that genre.

As you continue practicing and playing and improvising, you will come to learn and anticipate the sounds you’re going to make on your guitar, just like you have learned and can anticipate the words you’re going to speak before you say them. You will also learn style, and just as you speak with a wide range of tones of voice, you will learn to play with a wide variety of inflections and embellishments, such as slides, bends, and vibrato. You might start by improvising somewhat randomly, not exactly knowing what you’re saying (or maybe knowing what you want to say, but not knowing how to say it), but eventually you will start playing deliberate phrases, combining them together to make deliberate musical paragraphs. At that point you will know that you are speaking the language of music and you will communicate with it. This is the holy grail of musical accomplishment, and the good news is, any guitarist can learn how to do it. All it takes is time and practice.

Points to keep in mind while improvising:

  • Music is communication; improvisation is a special way of communicating.
  • Don’t play everything you know in every solo, just like you wouldn’t use every word you know in every speech.
  • Listen to yourself as you play – develop the idea you just played.
  • Does your playing contain too much tension, or too much release? Strive for balance to keep things interesting yet relatable.
  • We can remember what we just said. Can you remember what you just played?
  • Are you rambling? Would you ramble on with words the way you do with notes?
  • Every time you improvise, you have a chance to say something. Do you?
  • Your instrument is merely a means of delivering the thoughts of your mind, just like your mouth. Your mouth is for speaking your language (or singing!), and your instrument is for speaking music.
  • Make your melodic lines sing through your instrument.
  • Your goal: to reproduce instantaneously on your instrument what you hear in your mind.

The bottom line: the best way to learn how to speak is to actually speak, and the best way to learn how to improvise is to actually improvise. Put on your favorite songs or backing tracks and get busy improvising. Play licks, melodic patterns, color tones, triads, arpeggios, double stops…everything that you’ve learned. Learn new things all the time; there is a wealth of great improvisation out there, so much that you couldn’t possibly listen to it all, much less learn it all. Combine, improvise, phrase, experiment, make mistakes, try again, put your soul and feelings into it and say something meaningful with your music.

The great guitar album you didn’t know was a great guitar album

A great guitar album you may not have known was a great guitar album is Christopher Cross‘s self-titled debut (1979). Yes, that’s right, soft rock legend Christopher Cross, the guy who did “Sailing” and “Arthur’s Theme” not only featured Jay Graydon, Larry Carlton and Eric Johnson on masterful guitar solos for 5 songs, but is himself a killer guitar player who knocked it out of the park on his own hit, “Ride Like The Wind” with a shredding outro solo. Great player, great album full of great songwriting and some truly brilliant guitar work. If you haven’t noticed this album before, I highly recommend it from start to finish.

Jazz guitar legend Pat Martino passes away at age 77

From NPR:

Determined to meet his jazz idols, Martino set out for Harlem at the young age of 15 and quickly settled into a busy schedule playing with masters of the Hammond B-3 organ. Traces of those soul-jazz origins can still be heard on the guitarist’s 1967 debut for Prestige, El Hombre, featuring Philly organist Trudy Pitts. The album’s unique lineup finds Martino already pushing into new terrain however, with a guitar/flute out front and a percussion-heavy rhythm section supplying powerful propulsion for the leader’s quicksilver lines.

El Hombre is a formative album for any budding jazz guitarist, and one of my personal favorites of the genre. 55 years later, it remains a towering debut from a young player who was already flirting with virtuoso status, and his career would only ascend from there. You can also read some of the accolades from his peers in Downbeat, it’s clear he was highly respected and well-liked in musician circles. Rest in peace, Mr. Martino, there will never be another like you.